A subtle and dangerous shift in Christianity

Back in 2010 when I wrote this article my aim was to inform professing Christians, who had convinced themselves that it’s okay to practice “Christian yoga,” that it is not okay at all.  At that point yoga, which has it’s roots in Hinduism, had taken the Christian community by storm.  As you will see in my piece, Christian yoga is an oxymoron if there ever was one.  But the important thing for readers to understand is that pagan practices such as yoga cannot be christianized, nor should God’s people adopt a pagan practice and attach a Christian title to it so that it’s acceptable to the Christian community. When God says no, He means No! (2 Cor 6:14)



“‘Namaste’ declares yoga’s quest for enlightenment and immortality through realization of inner divinity.”

It seems everyone’s practicing yoga meditation these days. Physicians recommend it to their patients which means it’s beneficial…right? Meditation is said to relieve stress, anxiety, hypertension, acne and post-nasal drip, so go for it! Just tighten those abdominal muscles, inhale deeply and chant Maaaaaaaaa all in one breath and your concerns will drift away like a feather floating on the wind…

But what if you’re a Christian? Should you practice the same sorts of things as Buddhist, Hindu’s and New Agers?

Listen to what the Bible says:

This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate thereon day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein: for then thou shalt make thy way prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success (Josh.1:8).

Firstly, meditating day and night does not mean to stay awake for 24 hours a day. Secondly, Christian meditation is very different from Eastern meditation. Followers of Jesus Christ are not to sit in the lotus pose in an altered state of consciousness seeking the “God within” like pagans do. The Bible teaches that when Christians meditate our minds are to be fully engaged. We are never to go into a trance-state.

What does meditation involve? “The word ‘meditation’ in Hebrew means basically to speak or to mutter. When this is done in the heart it is called musing or meditation. So meditating on the Word of God day and night means to speak to yourself the Word of God day and night and to speak to yourself about it.”

Before you dive into God’s Word take a moment to ask the Holy Spirit to illuminate your mind and to reveal truth to you. As you read, stop to ponder what God has spoken through the words on the page. Always, always, always consider the context. In Charles Spurgeon’s sermon “Pray Without Ceasing,” he says there are four important questions to be asked:

What do these words imply? Secondly, What do they actually mean? Thirdly, How shall we obey them? And, fourthly, Why should WE especially obey them?

Sometimes you need to read a passage over and over…reflect on it…analyze it…and listen while the Holy Spirit speaks truth to you. A word of warning: Listening to God does not require that you “empty” your mind. This meditative practice, called Lectio divina a.k.a. spiritual formation…the silence…best known as contemplative (centering) prayer (CP) is a growing trend in evangelical churches despite the fact that this sort of prayer ritual comes from teaching associated with Catholic mystics such as Meister Eckhart, Ignatius of Loyola, St. John of the Cross, and St. Teresa of Avila. CP was reintroduced by Thomas Merton, Thomas Keating, Henri Nouwen, William Meninger, Basil Pennington and other mystics.

Many in the Emergent Church movement (ECM) are advancing Roman Catholic mysticism as well. Yet they insist on being seen as mainline evangelicals. ECM has not only introduced aberrant teaching into our churches, it undermines the authority of Scripture. Gary Gilley laments that there has been a shift from infallible scriptures to “psychological and sociological experts, opinions of the masses, trends of the moment and the philosophy of pragmatism. This shift has been subtle, which has made it all the more dangerous. Few have bothered to deny the Bible itself, they just misquote it, abuse its meaning, force their opinion on it, and if necessary mistranslate it to give the appearance that the Scriptures are backing their claims. The affect of all of this scriptural manipulation is to both erode the authority of God’s Word and to give the appearance that what Scripture has to say isn’t really important. It is only a short step from here to a Christian community that no longer has much use for the Bible.” (This is eerily similar to the way liberals/progressives treat the U.S. Constitution.)

The Body of Christ needs to know who these apostates are. Rick Warren for one. Warren has been promoting CP in his books for years. Other important figures are Richard Foster, Dallas Willard, Brian McLaren, Leonard Sweet, Frank Viola, Jim Wallis, Tony Campolo, Richard Rohr, Rob Bell, Tony Jones, Doug Pagitt, Dan Kimball and Shane Claiborne. This is just the tip of the iceberg.

Listen to why it can be dangerous:

It has the potential to become, and often does become, a pursuit of mystical experience where the goal is to empty and free the mind and empower oneself. The Christian… uses the Scriptures to pursue the knowledge of God, wisdom, and holiness through the objective meaning of the text with the aim of transforming the mind according to truth. God said His people are destroyed for lack of knowledge (Hosea 4:6), not for lack of mystical, personal encounters with Him.

One should also consider that emptying or freeing the mind can put a person in contact with demons:

[T]he dangers inherent in opening our minds and listening for voices should be obvious. The contemplative pray-ers are so eager to hear something — anything — that they can lose the objectivity needed to discern between God’s voice, their own thoughts, and the infiltration of demons into their minds.

Contemplative prayer is almost identical to how the Zen Buddhists meditate. Following is part of the meditation process, “Just be still and know“:

Sit in the lotus pose (cross legged) keeping your spine straight… put your hands on each other in your lap… Now look at your left hand…just look. Aware of the left part of your body… look at the left hand in an empty manner. Just look. Don’t let any thought pop up in your mind…look blankly on your left hand and try to feel the left portion of your body…feel the left part…feel…This very process will activate your right brain. When the right brain activates, it results in disappearance of thoughts. Your thought will start disappearing…[ Slowly after a few sessions of practicing this meditation, you will be able to instantly achieve this state of disappearance of thoughts]

In Buddhism repeating a single word is known as a mantra. Many Buddhists simply murmur ommmm repeatedly. When Christians practice CP a word or phrase from the Bible is repeated. Many believers, especially young people, have been conned into believing that saying “I love Jesus” over and over will get them in contact with God. The fact of the matter is this approach to drawing close to God is unbiblical. Thus it should be eliminated from the serious Christian’s approach to and understanding of meditation and prayer.

With these practices and beliefs comes a “virtual encyclopedia of theological error,” says Gary Gilley. Many change agents in the Church are “Progressive Christians” now morphing into “social justice Christians” (SJC). Social justice is doublespeak for socialism. Spreading the social justice gospel is not the good news the Bible speaks of. SJCs want to mold America into a socialist saturated nanny state. Their aim is to redistribute the wealth. Before you buy into the SJC hype, check your history books. In every country socialism has been tried it has failed. Socialism takes away people’s freedoms and ultimately leads to tyranny. So why on earth does America want to copy it?

SJCs are bent on reinventing, or as Dan Kimball puts it re-imagining” traditional Christianity. Progressives are pushing pluralism. Because….when the Church becomes ecumenical and includes aspects of other religions it will blend nicely into their perception of how the 21st Century is going to be.

Authentic Christianity will never blend in! Christianity stands alone. All other religions are based on works righteousness (if you’re a good person you will ultimately be rewarded). The Bible is very clear that “there is no one righteous, no not one” (Rom 3:10). We are all sinners in need of a Savior. Sin separates us from a holy God. Christians believe Christ died for our sins and was raised to life for our justification. We believe we are saved by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ’s righteousness alone. True Christians are willing to die for the Truth. Are counterfeit Christians willing to die for their truth?

So, where was I?…Oh yes.

“Think about these things…”

Progressive Christians are introducing theological error into the Church faster than a starving cheetah chasing down a gazelle. In “How to Practice Meditative Prayer” Acts 29 Pastor, Winfield Bevins, explains:

In Hebrew thought, to meditate upon the Scriptures is to quietly repeat them, giving oneself entirely to God, and abandoning outside distractions. The two main things that we are told to meditate on are God’s word and God’s goodness. Paul tells us, “Whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of praise, think about these things” (Philippians 4:8).

Paul was not talking about prayer when he said “think about these things.” He was saying that we should let our minds dwell on pure thoughts because what we allow into our minds shapes our actions. Paul finishes his thought in verse 9:

Whatever you have learned or received or heard from me, or seen in me — put it into practice. And the God of peace will be with you.

Do what you have seen me do, says Paul. This is not about finding a quiet place to sit crossed legged and prayerfully meditate — he was telling them to imitate what they have seen in him! According to Matthew Henry’s Whole Bible Commentary:

In these things he proposes himself to them for an example (v. 9): Those things which you have learned, and received, and heard and seen in me, do. … What they saw in him was the same thing with what they heard from him. He could propose himself as well as his doctrine to their imitation. It gives a great force to what we say to others when we can appeal to what they have seen in us. And this is the way to have the God of peace with us-to keep close to our duty to him. The Lord is with us while we are with him.

Many Christians lead busy lives so they put off spending time with God. In fact, data shows that most believers spend very little time in their Bibles, even though there’s a whole lot of prayin’ goin’ on! People running hither and yon bombard the Lord with bullet prayers. Now, don’t get me wrong. Praying umpteen times a day is what believers should do — we are commanded to pray without ceasing. (1 Thes. 5:17) We are also commanded to abide in Christ:

I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing (John 15:5).

If followers of Jesus Christ are to bring forth good fruit they must stay attached to the Vine. The fruit believers bear when they’re not abiding in Christ may look ripe and juicy on the outside. But it is rotten fruit!

There is a story in Luke 10:38-42 of two sisters, Mary and Martha, who thought differently about how to serve their Master. When Jesus came to their home Martha stayed in the kitchen preparing food for their guests. She had her own ideas on how to serve Christ. Martha became vexed that Mary was not helping with the meal. Instead she sat at the feet of Jesus to hear his word. Martha actually went to Him to complain. Instead of taking her side, Christ publicly rebuked her:

And Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art careful and troubled about many things…

In his commentary Matthew Henry explains the situation:

He repeated her name, Martha, Martha; he speaks as one in earnest, and deeply concerned for her welfare. Those that are entangled in the cares of this life are not easily disentangled. To them we must call again and again, O earth, earth, earth, hear the word of the Lord.

Jesus continues:

But one thing is needful: and Mary hath chosen that good part, which shall not be taken away from her.

Again, Matthew Henry:

“She had justly given the preference to that which best deserved it; for one thing is needful, this one thing that she has done, to give up herself to the guidance of Christ, and receive the law from his mouth. Note, Serious godliness is a needful thing, it is the one thing needful; for nothing without this will do us any real good in this world, and nothing but this will go with us into another world.”

Certainly there is nothing wrong with cooking for guests. But what we need to remember is that we are children of God before we are servants of God. Like Mary, we must sit at our Lord’s feet. Martha was so busy serving Jesus that she had no time to spend with Him! Have I hit a nerve?

Prayer is intended as praise, confession, thanksgiving, and asking for others. (Phil 4:4-7) In prayer we find God’s love and we will experience peace. Moreover, through prayer we are conformed to God’s will. Prayer is not meant to be an esoteric experience, like the contemplatives would have us believe. The Bible does not teach that God’s people are to go into a self-induced altered-state of consciousness to commune with Him. Again, meditating day and night does not mean we are to look for the “God within,” as Eastern mystics and occultist do. For the Christian to be involved in any sort of pagan practice is strictly forbidden by God! This is because God opposes paganism’s polytheism and blatant immorality. There is no getting around the fact that polytheism and immorality are the pagan way.

The Christian who truly wants to please God will do as the psalmist suggests:

“Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in thy sight, O LORD, my strength and my redeemer” (Psalm 19:14).

Explore the Emergent/Emerging/Emergence Church Movement

Explore “Christian” Yoga

Explore Contemplative Prayer

© Marsha West

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29 Responses to A subtle and dangerous shift in Christianity

  1. Maggie June 19, 2017 at 12:06 pm #

    There seems to be no end to blatant Bible twisting in trying to promote some belief or practice. Some time ago I ran across a website teaching CP which stated that Apostle Paul practiced CP! I don’t remember which biblical passage they used as the basis for this statement, but it was a ridiculous example. Another snare crafted by the devil for those undiscerning.

    • Maggie June 19, 2017 at 12:11 pm #

      On re-read of article, I see that Marsha cited one example regarding Paul.

    • Marsha West June 19, 2017 at 1:27 pm #

      Maggie….Must’ve been a Catholic site. 🙂

  2. Manny1962 June 19, 2017 at 12:15 pm #

    Hi Marsha,

    I remember so many being “offended” by that article……… I hate to say it, but Christians are a dumb lot, we get fooled by our leaders, by false brethren, by false theology, by the world! Is it any wonder we are called “sheep?” Sheep are dumb animals, and if not for the protection of a shepherd, the flock would be decimated by wolves in no time!

    I’m just waiting to see how many “sheep” are going to be offended this time! I can see non-cristians being offended, why not yoga is of this world, it’s origins are pagan and demonic. Sadly, most Christians that defend yoga have never taken the time to research the true nature of the practice, ignorantly they think it can be made “neutral.” Little do they realize yoga is used in preparing yourself mentally to worship Krishna, the demon god of Hinduism.

    • Marsha West June 19, 2017 at 1:24 pm #


      What you said about sheep – true! In my experience very few “Christians” wish to be corrected and they don’t respond well when I tell them that what they believe/are doing is decidedly unbiblical. They just dig in their heels and offer some lame excuse as why they choose to continue in their sin. Sadly, many claim that they’re not breaking any rules…..because they make up their own rules. And this includes my own family as well as a few close friends. The Church is filled with moral relativists.


  3. Gina June 19, 2017 at 1:40 pm #

    I agree with this for the most part. I am seeing so much of this “God told me to…” or “I was praying and then God just said to me…” Yuck. It’s just so sickning how we want to turn our feelings and thoughts into God’s. Having a Catholic and occultic background myself, I see too many similarities between those false teachings/practices and what is being introduced in the Church as Christian practices, such as CP.

    The one area I would have to disagre with is the area you say that believers could be the ones not abiding or producing any fruit, regarding the verse John 15:5. Although we produce different levels of fruit and various times in our walk and we are more fruitful as we read His Word, obey and pray, all believers produce some fruit. Faith is fruit. The ones who don’t abide,or produce fruit, are burned as verses 6 and 7 indicate.

  4. Bob Schoenle June 19, 2017 at 5:35 pm #

    This is an excellent article. Too many ‘professing’ Christians are either uninformed or misinformed and seem to be satisfied with being ignorant about biblical matters and doctrines. As a result, we have witnessed the fulfillment of 2 Thessalonians 2:1-3. Maranatha!

  5. John Campbell June 20, 2017 at 12:01 am #

    Jesus told us that there would be a great turning away and this is what we are seeing. Today’s Christians are Bible and theology ignorant. The Devil is filling the vacuum.

  6. Michael Podeszwa June 20, 2017 at 8:32 am #


    I’m in the process of reading a book on Christian Spirituality called “Grace Upon Grace”. The author, Dr. John Kleinig is a Lutheran Pastor and Professor in Adelaide, Aus. I’ve learned a lot about mediation (we all do it, daydreaming for example, is a form of meditation). And I’m in the section now that deals with prayer.

    • Manny1962 June 20, 2017 at 11:32 am #

      Michael, please be very careful, I’m getting some awfully big red flags here! Daydreaming is not meditation. How did the apostle pray? Did they get into some mind emptying position or trance? The bible is very specific on how we pray! We are to pray in the Spirit! Totally different from Eastern practice and meaning!

      • Manny1962 June 20, 2017 at 11:35 am #

        Also be very, very leery when you see, hear, or read “Christian Spiritually” it reeks of Catholic mysticism.

  7. Doug June 20, 2017 at 8:48 am #

    Here is a huge danger that I have found; we are getting hit from multiple sides with this influx of pagan rites which desensitizes the unwary. If you watch TV take notice of the commercials – yoga is being presented as a legitimate every day activity in Madison Avenue’s America, it’s what you do while waiting for laundry to dry or before you hop into your gleaming new station wagon (ooops! We call those “Cross-overs” now)

    This year isn’t half over and already I’ve had to tell two doctors that I do not participate in eastern mysticism. These are not fresh face grads from some discount med school in Costa Rica, these are highly educated professionals and are passing off eastern meditation practices as “alternative” medicine. Their brand of witchdoctoring is called “Mindfullness” and they are using it as an alternative to potentially addictive medications, which on the surface is a noble idea, but in practice is dangerous.

    Mindfulness as a practice is described as: “Mindfulness is a way of paying attention that originated in Eastern meditation practices” “Paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally” “Bringing one’s complete attention to the present experience on a moment-to-moment basis” – Wikipedia

    I had to explain to one doctor “I’m trying to eliminate my pain, not to celebrate it” and I did get her to realize that it’s better (for me at least) to get the brain busy on positive, constructive actions rather than navel gazing and opening myself to influences that I need to be on guard against. I also told her that if she wants me to do Yoga I’ll get my stretching exercises in physical therapy and not a hindu religious rite thankyouverymuch

    So now the average church goer is being told by their family doctor that eastern mysticism is just peachy and on TV the successful young go getter is dressed in spandex, has a mat rolled up under one arm, and relaxes in strange poses we used to make fun of in the 60s. And what is the local churches doing about it? If your pastor or pastix is New Age in any measure, they’re encouraging it.

    • Manny1962 June 20, 2017 at 11:28 am #

      Very true! Every commercial break is peppered with new age mysticism, if you’re young and hep, you must do yoga or some insane meditation. There’s no getting away from it, even Churchianity is on board!

    • Maggie June 20, 2017 at 11:44 am #

      Doug, I believe yoga is promoted in the medical community because they are only focused on pragmatism and positive physical results. Same with energy healing, like Reiki. Since alternative medicine has been accepted in the West, these Eastern spiritual practices (occult) have also been lumped in with it. Of course, there is no mention of the possibility of channeling demonic forces. (That would make an interesting disclosure when explaining the pros and cons of this sort of treatment to the patient.)

    • berlorac June 20, 2017 at 5:06 pm #

      Doug, very true. I noticed the subtle inclusion of “om” in the Brad Paisley commercial pitching insurance. Paisley had previously professed to be Christian, not sure he still makes that claim. Not that a Christian can’t get sucked into eastern meditation, just saying that Paisley is looked up to by at least a couple of Christians I know because he’s Christian.

  8. lyn June 20, 2017 at 12:17 pm #


    MED’ITATE, v.i. L. meditor.

    1. To dwell on any thing in thought; to contemplate; to study; to turn or revolve any subject in the mind; appropriately but not exclusively used of pious contemplation, or a consideration of the great truths of religion.

    His delight is in the law of the Lord, and in his law doth he meditate day and night. Ps.1.
    MED’ITATE, v.t. To plan by revolving in the mind; to contrive; to intend.

    1. To think on; to revolve in the mind.

    Blessed is the man that doth meditate good things. source – http://av1611.com/kjbp/kjv-dictionary/meditate.html

    Meditating on God’s truth is simply filling your mind with His word and mulling over His truth in your thoughts.

  9. Katherine ingram June 20, 2017 at 8:10 pm #

    Thank you for the great article. In Australia Mindfulness is now all the rage. Can you do an article on that please? Right across NSW health personnel are being trained in it. It has spread through the whole system Dug Health where I work, Mental Health, Maternity, Palliative Care . A bit like Aroma Thervapy it is put forward as a remedy for many things. Calling it A Heart of Health a state funded course is being pushed by those at the top which includes 2 days at an ashram which teaches yoga Indra. It is being pushed in nursing to deal with stress associated with poor staffing. I have thought a lot about why this Buddhist meditation is so popular in the healthcare community. I think that it appeals to intellectuals. Yoga still has so many obvious pagan gods whereas Bhuddism has not except of course Buddha and the Dalai Lama. Linked to Mindfulness are special colouring books which work quicker to induce a meditational state. And of course none of this is seen as religious but “science based”. This is how yoga used to be advertised.

  10. Katherine ingram June 20, 2017 at 8:13 pm #

    A few typos in that reply. Yoga nidra not yoga Indra. Drug Health not Dug Health.!

  11. Gregory Anderson June 21, 2017 at 7:23 am #

    Every option for other so-called religious positions, whether mystic, pagan, ritualist, rationalist or humanist, is wrong, of evil origin, and damned of God.

    This is also true of our worldviews, knowing we are to seek to be transformed by the renewing of our mind (see Rom12). Thus having a mindset dominated by any worldly civilization is a refusal of being like-minded with our Master Jesus Christ. I’ve met more folks than not who claim to be disciples of Jesus but have the same lifestyle, viewpoints, politics, attitudes towards culture, and opinions of obviously pagan people in America. This is being of the world, not just in the world. May we all seek to be obedient in our submission.

    Physical movements utilized in all forms of Yoga may or may not be beneficial in and of themselves, but not because they open channels for energy to flow, or other drivel. Even terrorists walk upright upon their feet, and that association does not invalidate walking for the rest of us.

    • Maggie June 21, 2017 at 11:44 am #

      Gregory, the practice of yoga involves both the physical movements and the use of meditation. From the Yoga white paper on this website: “Meditation is central to all forms of yoga.”

      • gregory anderson June 22, 2017 at 3:53 am #

        Perhaps if you understood me, rather than attack me, you’d understand I do not care what practioners of “yoga” think or judge to be correct.

        Maggie and others, why are you so interested in taking my comments away from the point I was making?

        Indeed, I was warned by an official notice that my response to this was considered spam.

        How dare you.

        • Maggie June 22, 2017 at 11:46 am #

          Gregory, in no way was I attacking you or taking your comments away from the point you were making. I was just adding information in case you understood yoga as just exercise, which many people do.

  12. Manny1962 June 21, 2017 at 1:27 pm #

    Walking s not a specific religious endeavor, yoga is.

  13. lyn June 22, 2017 at 12:09 pm #

    “Physical movements utilized in all forms of Yoga may or may not be beneficial in and of themselves, but not because they open channels for energy to flow, or other drivel. Even terrorists walk upright upon their feet, and that association does not invalidate walking for the rest of us.”

    Here’s why yoga is dangerous and should never be practiced by the born again believer, “The root, “yuj” (meaning “unity” or “yoke”), indicates that the purpose of yoga is to unite ourselves with our highest nature. This re-integration is accomplished through the practices of the various yoga disciplines. Until this re-integration takes place, we identify ourselves with our limitations–the limitations of the body, mind, and senses. Thus we feel incomplete and limited, and are subject to feelings of sorrow, insecurity, fear, and separation, because we have separated ourselves from the experience of the whole.” source – http://www.swamij.com/yoga-meaning.htm – this is NOT a christian link and it is not recommended for God’s elect!

    This is Satanic. It is a form of mind control and it is spiritually dangerous. There is a spirit world that can be ‘tapped into’ IF you dare go there. Call that conspiracy theory, etc. or whatever you want. There is a spiritual demonic world that envelopes this world, Eph 6:12  For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places. 

  14. Janet annable June 22, 2017 at 2:53 pm #

    But the important thing for readers to understand is that pagan practices such as yoga cannot be christianized, nor should God’s people adopt a pagan practice and attach a Christian title to it so that it’s acceptable to the Christian community. When God says no, He means No! (2 Cor 6:14)

    Question – how do is that not exactly what Christmas and Easter are?

    • berlorac June 22, 2017 at 5:10 pm #

      [Question – how do is that not exactly what Christmas and Easter are?]

      Good question. I don’t celebrate those two festivals and I’ve been ostracized to some extent because of it. Most Christians would say I’m a legalist. Far from it. It is grace through the Holy Spirit that has removed all desire to participate. It’s not that I feel God would be mad at me if I did observe those things; it’s just that pagan things are clear to me now and I have no desire to follow along with the crowd.

      • lyn June 23, 2017 at 12:07 am #

        Well said Berlorac. Both Christmas and Easter have pagan origins as well, and neither are commanded to be celebrated in the Bible. I don’t celebrate either as well and yes, you are right – ‘legalist’ is a frequent title given to us for refusing to participate…..so be it.

  15. Janet annable June 23, 2017 at 10:50 am #

    I agree you should not be called “legalist”. My understanding is that means trying to obtaining salvation by works. To not practice Christmas or not practise yoga does not make one a legalist, If these decisions come after having received salvation from God. I wonder how much agreement there would be between the writer of this article and those apposed to yoga.

  16. kat June 23, 2017 at 6:33 pm #

    Go to YouTube, type in Wide Is The Gate Caryl Matrisciana The New Spiritualty part 1
    Also an excellent book she wrote is Out of India,, a real eye- opener

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